Campbell's Crossroads in Cumberland County, NC

The following is from the research of Bruce Idol for Fort Bragg's compilation of historic sites around the Reservation there. Reproduced with permission.

Campbell's Crossroads (Site 31HK688) Campbell's Crossroad is the historic name for the intersection of Chicken and Raeford-Vass Roads, and also refers to a nineteenth to twentieth century historic site (31HK688) at this intersection in the southwestern part of Fort Bragg (Figure 6.1). As discussed below, the crossroads area and considerable surrounding land was controlled by the Campbell family from at least the mid-1800s until the land was acquired for Camp Bragg in 1921. This property is depicted as Tract No. 463 on the 1919 Camp Bragg map (Sirrine 1919).

The Campbell's Crossroads site (31HK688) occupies only a small portion of the former Campbell holdings. As previously defined by Fort Bragg CRP staff, the site occupies the southwest corner of the intersection, immediately south of Chicken Road and immediately west of Raeford-Vass Road, on the Nicholson creeks 7.5 minute series quadrangle map (USGS 1948/1982). The site includes the southern portion of Campbell's Airfield, a cleared field used by the military as a helicopter landing zone and for artillery positions (Figures 6.2-6.5).

The site is located on an upland plateau or a broad ridge drained by numerous small tributaries of Juniper and Nicholson Creek, at an elevation of approximately 410 feet amsl (ca. 125 m amsl). A headwater branch of Juniper Creek is 290 m west, one headwater branch of Nicholson Creek is 650 m southeast, and another is 530 m northeast. The nearest second order stream is a branch tributary of Juniper Creek 1.3 km southwest. The summit of Blues Mountain, a large ironstone outcrop (ancient duricrust remnant) is approximately 605 m northwest (see Figures 2.2 and 6.1).

A small, abandoned Campbell family cemetery is located approximately 0.9 km northwest of the main site area, or approximately 0.96 km northwest of the intersection of Raeford-Vass and Chicken Roads (see Boyko and Kern 1996:36-38). Six markers are present, including a large marker with the names: Peter Campbell, Mary Campbell, John Campbell, Colin Campbell, Daniel Campbell, Caroline Campbell, and Christian Campbell. A VA marker (placed in 1993) records the burial site of an unknown U.S. Army soldier, 1865 (Boyko and Kern 1996:36). Four additional plain sandstone (or ironstone) markers are present. Background research (discussed below) for the current project suggests that the cemetery was used last in 1898.

Much of the site area is used as a military airfield in Fort Bragg training area HH1. Military disturbance is very evident in the form of vehicle road traces and a few re-filled pits. There are no standing structural remains or structural ruins of any kind. The site was selected for geophysical study because it lies in a cleared field, and because of the likelihood of encountering historic period subsurface features there.

Background Research

Written records and map sources were consulted to reconstruct the history of the Campbell's Crossroads site. These records were examined at the Cumberland County Courthouse in Fayetteville, the Hoke County Courthouse in Raeford, and the North Carolina Archives in Raleigh. This information provides an initial understanding of the area from deeds and maps.

Historic Maps

The earliest located map illustrating anycultural detail in the site vicinity is the 1808 Price and Strother map, which shows a "Campbell" presence in the general site vicinity, south of the Lower Little River and above the headwaters of Beaver Creek (Figure 6.6). The map scale does not allow any precise placement of the Campbell occupation, but does depict Plank Road and a northeast/southwest trending road that may represent Chicken Road. Plank Road was a major early road linking Fayetteville to North Carolina Piedmont towns such as Salem, and Chicken Road is simply a secondary road.

Because historic settlement is contingent in part on historic primary and secondary roads it is important to consider the development of Chicken and Raeford-Vass roads and the crossroads they formed. Raeford-Vass road first appears on the 1918-1919 acquisition map although the crossroads was certainly present well before this date. The two towns linked by the road, Vass and Raeford, were founded in 1897 and 1898 respectively (http://www.hoke-raeford.com/city.htm; Wellman1962:118). None of the nineteenth century deeds reference a crossroads, and it is possible that Raeford-Vass Road was little more than a narrow foot/horse trail until the early twentieth century. In contrast, Chicken Road appears as an unnamed road on several early to middle nineteenth century maps, including the 1833 McRae and Brazier map of Fayetteville and surrounding area, the Colton 1861 map, the 1865 U.S. Coast Survey map, the Kerr and Cain 1882 map, and the McDuffie 1884 map. Both roads (Chicken and Raeford Vass) are present by 1865, as indicated by records of troop movements before and after the battle at Monroe's crossroads. Chicken Road appears to be the same road referenced as Coleman Road on several nineteenth century deeds, with 1818 as the earliest reference (Cumberland County Court Records, Bridges 1999:150). Coleman Road is not labeled as such on any of the maps examined. McDuffie's earlier 1868 map of Cumberland County appears to be the first text reference to Chicken Road. It is uncertain then how early the actual crossroads existed, although it certainly appears to be present by 1865. It is uncertain then when the location came to be known as Campbell's Crossroads, although this may have been a product of early twentieth century map makers.

There do not appear to be any intermediate maps dating between 1808-1884 showing locations with any great precision, with the exception of the 1868 McDuffie map of Cumberland County, on which Chicken Road is depicted. The 1884 McDuffie map of Cumberland County shows a Campbell structure south of Chicken Road in the vicinity of Campbell's Crossroads in Quewhiffle Township (Figure 6.7). The earlier McDuffie map (1868) does not depict a Campbell structure (the nearest structure is labeled "McKeithan"), but the map is not as detailed as the 1884 version, and does not even show Blues Mountain. It is unlikely then that the 1868 map would depict a structure at the site location, even if one were present. The 1884 map also shows a 30 horsepower mill located on a branch of Juniper Creek approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) southwest of the Campbell structure. It may be significant that the Campbell structure is not located immediately south (adjacent) to Chicken Road, but appears to be some distance to the south, well outside the current archeological findings.

Structures are not depicted on the 1919 Camp Bragg Artillery Range map for the site area (Figure 6.8, after Sirrine 1919:Section 7), but the 1921 Hoke County soil survey map (which is based on a 1918 field survey) shows two structures in the present site area (Figure 6.9). Both are located immediately south of Chicken Road and west of Raeford-Vass Road near the crossroads, and these appear to correspond to the main artifact concentration found by the current investigation. Five additional structures are shown to the east of Raeford-Vass Road, and one is situated immediately southeast of the crossroad. Two structures are located east of this structure (on the east side of Raeford-Vass Road), one of which may be a main residence. Two additional structures are located to the south of these two, again to the east of Raeford-Vass Road. The area immediately southeast of the crossroads area (immediately east of Raeford-Vass Road and immediately south of Chicken Road) has been filled and is a permanent military dump.

Deeds and Land Records. Tract No. 463 was acquired by the U.S. Government in 1921, the year before the conversion of Camp Bragg into a permanent artillery post. In 1921, the District Court of the United States (the Eastern District of North Carolina in Raleigh) ruled in the case of U.S.A. vs. Vance Burton, et al., regarding the appropriate compensation for Tract No. 463 (825 acres), which was owned by the Daniel Campbell Estate. The defendants in the case were listed as William C. Campbell, Walter Campbell, Scott A. Campbell, Malcolm R. Campbell, Alberta B. Campbell, and Rowena E. Campbell, with the U.S.A. as plaintiff. The offered sum of $21,375.00 was judged to be just, fair, and full compensation for tract No. 463 "with improvements thereon, said sum including any and all damages for the use and occupancy of said lands or otherwise since the petition for condemnation was filed on June 24, 1919..." (Hoke County Deed Book 29:232-233).

The Campbell Estate had asked for $33,150.00 as compensation for the tract, but this amount was set aside as excessive in the view of the court. The court ruled that upon payment of the $21,375.00 and an additional $62.20 to cover the costs of the defendants witnesses, "the plaintiff, United States of America, shall be and become the owner in fee simple of said tract of land known as Tract No. 463 containing 825 acres, on the Official Government Map of Camp Bragg, recorded in the office of the Register of Deeds of Hoke County on May 30, 1919, in Book 2 of Plats, page 1, together with the improvements thereon according to legal description thereof, as determined bygovernment survey and embraced in the petition for condemnation, free from all liens, encumbrances and claims of every nature whatsoever..." (Hoke County Deed Book 29:232-233). The ruling was filed December 5, 1921, and the Chief Deputy Clerk records that the sum of $21,437.20 had been received from one W.H. McDonald, Field Representative, in payment of the award and court.

The same court ruled in 1921 on adjoining Tract No. 483, encompassing 42.3 acres. The family's requested award of $1,580.00 was set aside as excessive, and the sum of $950.00 judged to be fair, "for said tract No. 483, with improvements thereon" (Hoke County Deed Book 29:358-359). The ruling records that petition for condemnation had been filed on June 24, 1919. The ruling was made on December 1, 1921, certified by the clerk on December 12, and registered August 15, 1922.

The documentary history of the tract that includes Campbell's Crossroads begins in 1804 or 1805, when Malcom Campbell (b. 1755, Scotland) purchased two properties from Colin MacPherson (McPherson) (Cumberland County Deed Book 20:238; Cumberland County Deed Book 22:46) . The earlier 1804 deed from the index lists "50 acres, Juniper Creek", and the 1805 deed refers to "several tracts." These deeds were inspected at the Cumberland County Courthouse in Fayetteville but were barely legible, and unfortunately unavailable for further study [I am able to read these deeds. They were written by county clerk Robinson Mumford whose handwriting was sloppy and very difficult to read unless familiar with it. The first deed was written in 1803, not 1804, and conveys four tracts three of which were surveyed for Daniel Campbell in 1768 and the fourth patented by Daniel Campbell. This deed is witnessed by Laughlin McKay and his wife Katherine McKay who further stated that they relinquished their claim on these lands being the heirs of Daniel Campbell. Daniel Campbell and his wife Christian lived on Nicholson's Creek, and they had at least two daughters given land by their father in Cumberland County deeds: Nancy Campbell who married the Colin McPherson named above, and Katherine Campbell who married Laughlin McKay who with Katherine moved to Mississippi where she died shortly after. Daniel Campbell appears to have died between 1795 and May 1797. He and the Malcolm Campbell cited in this document may have been brothers. -Steve Edgerton]. In 1806 Malcom purchased 250 acres from A. Gilchrist (Cumberland County Deed Book 22:125). There are several references in subsequent deeds to the 300 acres that Gilchrist and Rhodes deeded to Malcom Campbell and his heirs.

It is impossible to determine the precise boundaries of Malcom Campbell's holdings, but the reference to Juniper Creek and later deeds and other records indicate that they included the Campbell's Crossroad's area. Malcom Campbell composed a will in 1812, prior to the birth of son Colin McPherson Campbell in 1813, deeding his estate to his wife Jannet Campbell and their sons and daughters. The will states as follows:

"First, I give and bequeath to my wife in the time of her widowhood all the land from the brick gate and all the graveyard field and all the north side of the road with the houses and house furniture. And if it is a boy that will be born for me this time, he must have his mother's share of the land, and if it is a girl I bequeath to her a Negro girl about seven or eight years old bought out of my property. To all my girls I bequeath to them a Negro a piece in time of division that they nor their husbands can neither sell or deliver to any person or persons and if no issue let them return to their brothers and sisters after their decease. All my ploughs and iron that belongs to the plantation 1/4 and all the corn that is made upon this plantation must go to the use of the family. I bequeath to my two sons all the land but what I mentioned, excepting the piece of land adjoining the first boundary I made and the engine spring. Like-wise, if it is a girl, I bequeath to my son John all the old plantation on each side of the road and as far down as the big sandhills. What is below that boundary between there and Rodrick McDonald I bequeath to my son Peter Campbell all that is adjoining the first boundary and Nicholson Creek ford. If any of my sons dies, neither of my daughters will be heirs but my sons will be heirs of one another. If they die without issue and if all my sons die without issue my brother's children will become heirs of my land after my wife's death. All the horses that are here now belongs to the use of the family. And if they raise anymore let Peter and John have the first two colts and afterwards what will be raised let them divide them between them all. After all the debts and demands have been paid, they must spend out of the property what will give them decent educations and all that is left let it be between mother and children. Estate, no divisions til my daughter Nancy is twelve years of age. I exempt one acre of land where the graveyard now lies not to be sold to any person or persons forever..." (from Cumberland County Wills, cited by Bridges 1999:148-149).

The document names Colin MacPherson, John MacPherson, [who were brothers -Steve Edgerton] and Duncan Ray as executors. The will (which was probated in 1813) establishes that a Campbell house (and other houses or structures) were located somewhere on the Campbell property prior to 1813, and also references an existing graveyard, although the locations of these is uncertain. Peter (b. 1796) was 17 years old upon his father's death and John (b. 1800) was 13 years old. Malcom and Jannet's other children at the time of his death were Margaret (25), Mary (19), and Nancy Ann (11); Colin Campbell was born in 1813 after his father's death. This reference suggests that the Malcom Campbell house may have been north of Chicken Road (if this is in fact the same as Coleman Road), perhaps in the vicinity of the existing cemetery, and not south of the road in the area of our investigation.

In the absence of further documentary information, we can only speculate about the economic circumstances of the Malcom Campbell family. It is doubtful if Malcom Campbell was a member of the planter class given the western Sandhills location and poor agricultural potential of his land (despite the fact that he refers to his estate as a plantation, and owns slaves). Productive soils, if any existed, would have been limited to the vicinity of Juniper Creek.

In 1818, Malcom Campbell's widow Jannet designated several freeholders to lay off and allot his land. The following is taken from Cumberland County Court records (cited by Bridges 1999:150). There were eight hundred and twenty-eight acres including the dwelling house and other out houses together with the greater part of the cleared land or improved lands. Beginning in a line of his old survey 1/4 by Lauchlin McKay about two hundred and fifty yards south of Coleman's Road between Coleman, Daniel Smith's and the late dwelling house of said Malcom Campbell, deceased and runs fifty five degrees east one hundred and ninety chains to the eastern boundary of said lands granted to said Campbell, deceased, by Rhodes and Gilchrist to and with said boundary to the Coleman Road, thence with said road to the line on which we began, including also thirty six acres north of said road, thence with said line to the beginning. Estimated to contain as above mentioned. This land with its appurtenances we allot and set apart to the said Jannet Campbell, widow, during her natural life."

In June 1821 Malcom Monroe was appointed guardian of John, Ann (Nancy), and Colin Campbell, the minor heirs of Malcom Campbell, deceased (from Cumberland County Court Records, cited by Bridges 1999:150). Jannet Campbell died in 1843, and her will was signed and probated in August of 1843. The following is abstracted from that document:

"...I will that my body be decently buried and that all my lawful debts be paid. I give and bequeath to my daughter Nancy Campbell my Negro girl Betsy, aged about six years. I give and bequeath to my daughter Margaret, wife of Neill Graham, one dollar in money. I give and bequeath unto my son Peter Campbell and my son John Campbell and my son Colin Campbell and my daughter Mary, wife of Archibald Monroe, all the balance of my property both real and personal to be divided equally between them..." (Bridges 1999:151).

Malcom Campbell's estate was divided in 1853, and passed to his sons and daughters: Colin, Peter, John, Margaret, Nancy, and Mary, for a total of six lots (Cumberland County Deed Book 51:564-566; see Appendix 6). The acreage was assigned as follows: Peter, Lot No. 1, (400 acres), Colin M., Lot No. 2, (300 acres), Nancy Jenkins, Lot No. 3, (460 acres), Margaret Graham, Lot No. 4, (500 acres), Mary Monroe, Lot No. 5 (420 acres), and John Campbell, Lot No. 6 (300 acres) (Cumberland County Deed Book 51:564-566). This totals 2,380 acres, and may represent the total land holdings of Malcom Campbell.

Of the six allotments, three (those to Peter, Colin, and John, respectively) mention Coleman Road (which is believed to correspond to Chicken Road), and one of these must include the property where the site is situated. There was an apparent challenge by one of the heirs regarding the division, as there is an 1853 petition of James Jenkins and wife (Nancy Campbell Jenkins) vs. John Campbell et al. (Cumberland County Deed Book 51:566), in which the court ruled in 1854 that the respective deeded allotments were fair.

In 1857, Daniel Campbell (b. 1826, son of Peter Campbell) received property from his uncle Colin Campbell (Cumberland County Deed Book 60:40). The deed was in probate until 1872. The property included 195 acres and mentions Coleman Road as a boundary, and is signed by Colin, Peter, and John Campbell. As the deed refers to Colin Campbell's remaining 105-acre tract, this is almost surely a division of the 300 acres received by Colin Campbell from the Malcom Campbell estate.

In 1858, Daniel Campbell purchased approximately 420 acres between Nicholson and Juniper creeks from Archibald, Neill, Daniel, Flora, and Sarah Campbell, and from Mary (Campbell) Monroe, for $550.00 (Cumberland County Deed Book 54:164). Other than the reference to the land lying between Nicholson and Juniper creeks, there is nothing to conclusively link the property to the crossroads area. At this point, a portion of Colin Campbell's property and all of Mary (Campbell) Monroe's property that derived from the Malcom Campbell estate division had been deeded to Daniel Campbell.

In 1874, Daniel Campbell deeded two tracts to Sarah A.C.L. Campbell, which were registered in 1885. (Cumberland County Deed Book 77:344-345). Sarah A.C.L. Campbell was born in 1830 (Peter's daughter) and married a Malcom Monroe in 1877 (Cumberland County Marriage Records, cited by Bridges 1999:152). The two tracts include a small 35.5 acre parcel that includes a portion of the Coleman Road, and a 50 acre tract that appears to lie well south of the 1919 Campbell Estate property. The deed mentions "the old 50 acres where Peter Campbell now lives on" (Cumberland County Deed Book 77:344). There is also a reference in the 1853 deed to "the old 50 acres" (Cumberland County Deed Book 51:564), but this parcel appears to lie outside that portion deeded to Peter Campbell.

In 1877 Sarah A.C.L. Campbell sold four parcels to Daniel Campbell, but these were not registered until 1898 (Cumberland County Deed Book 105:589-591). The first two of these total 191 acres and the last two total 805 acres. These correspond to the first four tracts listed in the deed transferring the Daniel Campbell estate to his heirs in 1898 (Cumberland County Deed Book 105:592-594). Colin Campbell's estate was sold upon his death in 1890, and administered by S.J. Cameron, a manufacturer of naval stores and dealer in general merchandise (Bridges 1999:152). The estate inventory includes: "...supposed amount of corn, 4 bushels, fodder, about 100 lbs., three chairs, one trunk, one box with some books, a wash pan and tin bucket, three water buckets, one shovel, one hoe, one small pot, one box old irons, one feather bed, and two blankets, two sheets, two plates and one dish. Some wearing clothes and shoes" (Richmond County Estate Records, cited by Bridges..." 1999:152).

It is not certain that Colin Campbell ever lived at the Campbell's Crossroads site, but the information does shed some light on Campbell family economic affairs near the turn of the century. In 1898, upon the death of Daniel Campbell (Malcom's grandson), his wife Katherine (formerly McLeod) obtained guardianship of the minor children: Neill W., William C., Scott A., Alberta B., Rowena L., and Malcom R. (Cumberland County Guardian Bonds, cited by Bridges 1999:152-153). Daniel Campbell's property was deeded to his children in 1898, prior to his death, and included a total of seven tracts. These included 144.5 acres, 41 acres, 4.5 acres, 300 acres, 195 acres (the former Colin Campbell property), 440 acres (the 1858 Daniel Campbell purchase from the Monroe's), and five acres, for a total of 1,130 acres (Cumberland County Deed Book 105:592-594). The fourth tract listed, encompassing 300 acres, is well south of the 1919 Campbell Estate 825 acre tract No. 463, and if this is excluded, the acreage more closely resembles that which passed to the federal government in 1921.

At the time the area was acquired for Camp Bragg, the site area was encompassed by the 825-acre Campbell Estate, which is shown as Tract No. 463 on the 1919 Camp Bragg property map (see Figure 6.8). The Campbell Estate depicted as tract No. 463 is roughly rectangular, and is divided into eastern and western segments by Raeford-Vass Road. A smaller portion of the tract extends north of Chicken Road, on the east side of Raeford-Vass Road. A separate, smaller 40.23-acre tract (No. 483) lies to the south of No. 463, and was also owned by the Campbell Estate. Two small rectangular tracts (Tracts No. 459 and 460, comprising approximately 64.8 and 49 acres) owned by William C. Campbell lie west of the Campbell Estate property, and abut Juniper Creek.

Tract No. 463 adjoins several other privately-owned tracts of various sizes (Figure 6.8). To the north, these include extensive tracts owned by Neill S. Blue, Mrs. A.E. Cameron and Mrs. Mary Blue, and a smaller tract owned by Ed Cameron. The Cameron/Blue tract also forms the eastern boundary of Tract No. 463. On the west, abutting Juniper Creek are tracts owned by Lovedy J. Cameron, William. C. Campbell (see above), E.B. McNeill, and Seate and Dunn. On the south side are tracts owned by J.D. McLean, Mrs. A.E. Cameron, the Campbell Estate (No. 483, see above), and Mrs. Mary Blue. A tract owned by J.W. & B.F. Moore adjoins the tract at the southeast corner.

The deed transferring the smaller tract No. 483 to the U.S.A. refers to "existing improvements" on that tract as well (Hoke County Deed Book 29:358), but there do not appear to be any structures present on that property (Figure 6.9). Three additional structures are shown on the 1921 map to the north of Chicken Road and two of these are within the present Campbell Airfield, but may or may not be situated on the William C. Campbell properties (Figure 6.8 and 6.9). All structures are depicted as the same size, so it is impossible to conclusively differentiate residential structures from outbuildings. Summary of Background Research In review, the known history of the Campbell's Crossroads site extends back to 1804-1805, when Malcom Campbell purchased several properties of unknown size from Colin McPherson. An 1808 map shows Campbell lands north of Plank Road and south of an unnamed road that appears to approximate the present Chicken Road. The property is next discussed in the 1812 will of Malcom Campbell. That document refers to his wife's allotment as "all the land from the brick gate and all the graveyard field and all the north side of the road with the houses and house furniture," and establishes that the Campbell estate included agricultural machinery and slaves. His widow Jannet Campbell had the estate land surveyed in 1818 so that it could be allotted. A court document refers to an 825-acre tract "including the dwelling house and other out houses" and refers to Coleman Road (which apparently is "the road" mentioned in Malcom's will, and probably is the same as present-day Chicken Road). This document suggests that most of the Campbell estate was situated south of the Coleman (Chicken) Road. Jannet Campbell's 1843 probated will allots land parcels to sons Peter, John, and Colin, and daughter Mary (Campbell) Monroe.

In 1853 the estate of Malcom Campbell was divided into six lots totaling 2,380 acres. Three of the lot descriptions (those of his sons Peter, Colin, and John) mention the Coleman Road. In 1857 Peter's son Daniel Campbell received 195 acres from Colin Campbell in a deed mentioning the Coleman Road as a boundary. This tract is undoubtedly a portion of the 300 acres Colin received from the Malcom Campbell estate division in 1853. This deed was in probate until 1872. In 1858 Daniel Campbell purchased 420 acres between Nicholson and Juniper Creeks, including Mary Campbell Monroe's portion of the Malcom Campbell estate division.

In 1874 Daniel Campbell deeded two tracts to his sister Sarah A.C.L. Campbell, which were not registered at the Cumberland County Courthouse until 1885. Both tracts are small and one tract includes a portion of the Coleman Road. The deed refers to "the old 50 acres that Peter Campbell now lives on." In 1877 Sarah sold four tracts totaling 996 acres to her brother Daniel Campbell, which are referred to in the 1898 deed transferring the Daniel Campbell estate to his surviving children. This deed was not registered until 1898, the apparent year of Daniel Campbell's death. It is not clear when and from where Sarah came to possess these properties, or if the later 1877 transaction contains part of the earlier 1874 transaction lands. The properties referred to in the 1877 deed appear to constitute the large tract that was acquired by the U.S.A. in 1921.

The 1884 McDuffie map is the earliest "detailed" map of the Campbell's Crossroads area. One structure is depicted south of Chicken Road, although its precise location is unknown because Raeford-Vass Road is not depicted (although it apparently existed at that time, due to the reconstructed movements of Federal troops during the Monroe's Crossroads battle in 1865). The two roads are not shown together until the creation of the Camp Bragg Artillery Range survey map in 1918 and the Hoke County soil survey of that same year, and it is likely that Raeford-Vass Road was no more than a horse/foot trail prior to the twentieth century. It may be significant that the Campbell structure is not located immediately south of Chicken Road on the 1884 map. In 1898 the tract was deeded to the children of Daniel Campbell before Daniel's death. The tract was divided into seven individual tracts, and at least one of these is well south of the current site (crossroads) area. The remaining six tracts acreage closely resembles the acreage encompassed by the single tract designated as "Campbell Estate" tract No. 463 on the 1918 Camp Bragg map. No structures are shown on this map, as the map focuses mainly on private property boundaries that will subsequently be acquired by the federal government.

In 1921 the U.S. government obtained the property in a district court settlement from the recipients of the Daniel Campbell Estate. At that time Hoke County soil map (1921, but survey performed in 1918) shows several structures in the crossroads vicinity, including two closely spaced structures in the approximate area of the current investigation. The 1921 map then shows additional structures not included on the 1884 map, at least some of which might have been erected in the intermediate time. All structures in the crossroads vicinity were apparently razed shortly after the purchase in 1921.

Although the general sequence of land ownership is apparent, the deeds provide few specific references to domestic or other structures (apart from those mentioned cursorily in the Malcom Campbell's 1812 will and in the 1874 deed reference). The 1921 acquisition deeds refer to the existing improvements on tracts No. 463 and No. 483, but no structures are depicted within the smaller tract No. 483 on the 1921 soil map. It is not clear if any of the structures depicted on the 1921 map (Vanatta 1921) represent the Malcom Campbell dwelling, or the Peter Campbell house, or if they are other houses or outbuildings. From the 1812 reference to "all on the north side of the road with the houses and house furniture," it appears that Malcom lived on the north side of Chicken Road. In contrast, the 1818 allotment survey suggests that his house may have been south of this road.

The 1884 McDuffie map shows a Campbell structure between Nicholson and Juniper creeks, and south of Chicken Road, and this is the only structure location evidence prior to the 1918 Hoke County soil map. It is possible that this is the structure located immediately at the crossroads on the east side of Raeford-Vass road, although the possibility remains that the structure was on the west side of Raeford-Vass road in the location of our investigations. We have obtained no historic documentary information on particular occupants, or length of individual occupations, that can be specifically linked to the crossroads site.

Finally, Malcom Campbell's 1812 will refers to an existing cemetery, which seems to have been north of the Coleman (Chicken) road. The Campbell cemetery as now defined (Boyko and Kern 1996) thus may have been used prior to 1813 and apparently was used as recently as 1898 for the interment of Daniel Campbell. However it is possible, given the size and uncertain boundaries of the Malcom Campbell estate, that the 1813 will refers to an additional cemetery that has been lost over time.